【無聲的入侵】中國銳實力傷害民主國家 該緊張的不僅是澳洲

林思怡 2019年04月03日 07:01:00

中國的銳實力影響全球。(照片:湯森路透,後製:李明維)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

「中國與澳洲民主,再一次碰撞。我認為,有大事正在進行。我決定展開調查寫一本書,好讓澳洲人明白我們的國家正在發生什麼事。」

 

(China and Australian democracy had collided again. Something big is going on, I thought. I decide to investigate and write a book so that Australians could understand what has been happening to our country.)

 

「有人能夠想像,美國政府會利用我們的法律去威嚇出版商放棄一本批評美國的書嗎?」

 

(Can we imagine a United States government using our laws to frighten publisher into dropping a book criticizing it?)

 

 

 

取自序言,《無聲的入侵:中國因素在澳洲》

 

 ​from Preface, 《Silent Invasion: China's Influence in Australia》

 

 

 

「銳實力」(sharp power)一詞由美國國家民主基金會(National Endowment for Democracy)在2017年11月所創,原出處為美國《外交》(Foreign Affairs)雜誌中一篇名為《銳實力的意義》(The Meaning of Sharp Power)的文章。

 

銳實力與硬實力(hard power)或軟實力(soft power)都不同。

 

根據《銳實力的意義》一文,極權政府將影響力滲入目標國家的政治與資訊體系,不像軍事等硬實力帶來直接明顯的影響,銳實力反而涉及一部份「藏匿蹤跡」的特質。利用民主開放的政治與資訊體系,極權政府的銳實力通常難以察覺,這代表在受害國家察覺以前,該政府可能早已獲利許久。

 

中國自然是銳實力的代表國家之一,《無聲的入侵:中國因素在澳洲》(Silent Invasion: China's Influence in Australia)一書詳述中國共產黨的影響力如何滲入澳洲政治、社會、媒體與學術界等多個領域。

 

2018年,就在這本書英文版決定付梓前的最後一刻,因擔憂遭中國政府報復,澳洲重要出版社艾倫昂溫(Allen & Unwin)驟然決定取消出版,諷刺地,作者克萊夫.漢密爾頓(Clive Hamilton)自己也成為了中國銳實力的「受害者」。

 

 

作者克萊夫.漢密爾頓3月底透過電子郵件接受《上報》的專訪,探討中國如何利用民主國家對言論自由的開放,從中採取有利國家的行動。另外,中國努力在海外扶植親北京政府勢力,以及藉由中企、中資滲透他國,受害國家又該如何防範?

 

最後,對於受中國陰影籠罩的世界局勢,漢密爾頓時而樂觀、時而悲觀,等待中國是否會出現一群足以撼動當今中國共產黨的有識之士,或是能見到這樣脆弱又不肯退讓的極權政府會有崩垮的一天。

 

以下為《上報》訪問作者的題目,以及作者回應的原文、譯文。

 

1. What do you think about China’s sharp power and the influence? If there’s any other way for western countries and Taiwan to fight against it?

 

您對中國的銳實力與影響有何見解?西方國家和台灣有任何方法可以對抗嗎?

 

China's use of sharp power is pervasive, systematic and insidious. It is attempting to subvert the political processes of other nations by inducements and coercion Overseas Chinese are a particular target for threats and bullying.

 

I was disturbed to hear that Jason Wu thinks the situation in Australia is worse than in Taiwan. His friend's family had migrated to Australia years ago but decided move back to Taiwan because in Australia they were bullied by pro-Beijing people.

 

Many people of Chinese heritage came to Australia to escape the Chinese Communist Party. But they have found that it has followed them here.

Australia is beginning to push back against Beijing's influence, especailly with the new foreign interference law that criminalizes some kinds of influence activities, those activities that are covert, coercive or corrupt. It aims to blunt China's sharp power. We do not yet know how effective it will be.

 

中國使用銳實力的方式具侵略性、系統性,而且陰險狡詐。他們試圖透過引誘和逼迫來動搖其他國家的民主進程。海外華人尤其是他們威脅和欺凌的對象。聽到吳奕軍認為澳洲的情況比台灣糟糕讓我很不安。他朋友的家人幾年前移民到澳洲,但後來決定搬回台灣,就是因為他們在澳洲被親北京人士欺負。

 

許多有中國血統的人為了躲避中國共產黨來到澳洲,但他們發現共產黨如影隨形。澳洲已經開始反擊北京的影響力,特別是反外國干預法規範某些犯罪的干涉行為。那些行為隱晦、脅迫又或是徇私舞弊。該法律意在挫敗中國的銳實力,我們現在還不知道成效會如何。

 

2. What do you think about that China is exploiting democracy and the rule of law to tear Australia apart for their interests?

 

您對中國為了利益濫用民主和法制撕裂澳洲有何見解?

 

Beijing exploits the openness and rights of democratic societies. It uses the right to free speech to advance its anti-free speech agenda by, for example, taking control of Chinese-language media in Australia and pressuring publishers not to publish books critical of it. It also supports its agents of influence to be elected to parliaments in Australia, where they act in ways to strengthen the CCP's dictatorship.

 

The CCP leadership have no morals guiding their actions. For them, the only thing that matters is extending their power and wealth.

 

北京在濫用民主社會的開放與權利。舉例來說,他們控制澳洲的華語媒體、向出版商施壓不要出版批評他們的書,利用言論自由的權利來進行他們反言論自由的計畫。北京也幫助那些擁有影響力的人在澳洲國會選舉中獲選,在國會內設法強化中國共產黨的獨裁專政。中國共產黨領導者的行動毫無道德準則可言。對他們來說,重要的事情只有如何擴大權利與累積財富。

 

3. Based on the increasing penetration of Chinese business, what is going to be the next step for China to exert its influence?

 

在中國企業不斷滲透的情況下,中國接下來會如何進一步運用影響力?

 

We now know that the CCP uses Chinese businesses, both state-owned and private, to advance its political interests. Many businesses simply want to get on with business, but they dare not cross the Party. Unfortunately, that means in countries like Australia Chinese investment cannot be treated in the same way as, say, Japanese of Canadian investment. Greater vigilance is necessary.

 

我們都知道中國利用國營和私人企業來達到他們的政治利益。許多公司都想要拓展企業,但不敢惹惱共產黨。這就代表在像澳洲這樣的國家,中國投資無法像日本或加拿大投資一樣平等看待,必須更加以警惕。

 

中國透過國營和私人企業滲透各國政治與社會體系。(湯森路透)

 

4. What is your perspective for US-China trade war? Is there any chance that the US will closely work with other countries to challenge China?

 

您對中美貿易戰有什麼樣的看法呢?美國是否有機會跟其他國家緊密合作來對抗中國?

 

The U.S. wants to build alliances to challenge China's growing power in the Indo-Pacific region, but President Trump's erratic and ill-informed actions have been undermining the trust of America's allies. The United States must make up its mind. If it wants to prevent China becoming the dominant world power then it must stop pushing its friends away.

 

美國想在印太地區建立盟友關係,對抗中國正在崛起的力量,但(美國)總統川普難以預測又孤陋寡聞的行為一直在削減美國盟友的信任。美國必須下定決心,如果想要防止中國成為主宰的世界霸權,就必須停止推開他們的朋友。

 

中國企業華為一直是美中貿易戰的重點目標之一。(湯森路透)

 

5. Are you holding a positive or negative attitude towards the global scenario when considering China’s ambition? Why?

 

將中國的野心納入一起思考的話,您對世界局勢抱持正面或負面態度?為什麼?

 

Some days I am optimistic and some days I am pessimistic. Ultimately, much depends on whether the hard-line, paranoid and autocratic elements that now dominate the Chinese Communist Party can keep their grip on power, or whether more sensible forces can defeat them. The Chinese regime is powerful, but it is also brittle and uncompromising. Historically, it is diffiult for such a regime to survive.

 

我有時候樂觀,有時候悲觀。最終還是得看那些強硬、偏執和專制的中國共產黨核心人物是否可以緊握權力,或是會出現更有理智的力量擊垮他們。中國政權勢力強大,可是脆弱易碎又不肯妥協。從歷史上來看,這樣的政權很難生存下來。

 

中國3月初召開十三屆政協、人大第2次會議,宣布多項執政目標和立法。(湯森路透)

 

 

曾遭中國施壓臨時取消出版的《無聲的入侵》一書中文版。(左岸文化提供)

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